Science Experiments to try at Home

 

 


Science Experiments to try at Home

Very Simple Science Explanations for Primary Science at home experiments

Magic Multi-coloured milk

The Science

Milk is mostly water, but it also contains vitamins, minerals, proteins, and small bits of fat suspended in solution. Milk fats don’t dissolve in water. The detergent particle has one end that attracts the milk fat and one end which attracts the water.

The milk fat molecules move towards the end of the detergent particle that attracts them. While this is happening the food-colouring is moved around everywhere.

 

Magic Mentos

The Science

The fizz in a fizzy drink is a gas called carbon dioxide which is forced into the drink under pressure.

The surface of the Mentos is actually quite rough if you look at it through a microscope. As the Mentos sinks in the coke, the rough surface of the Mentos allows more and more carbon dioxide bubbles to form on the surface and these bubbles help the Mentos to rise up to the surface and push the coke out to give the eruption.

 

Fairy Tornado

The Science 

As you shake the container in a circular motion, a vortex will be created in the centre of it and the water you see that spins around the vortex with a spinning (centripetal) force acting on it to keep it moving in a circle. These spinning forces push the water towards the centre as well as moving it in a circle and this creates a mini tornado.

Self filling balloons

The Science

When the baking soda reacts with the vinegar it creates a gas called carbon dioxide. You can see it bubble and foam and eventually the pressure builds up and the carbon dioxide escapes from the bottle to blow up the balloon.

 

Magical Fairy Cakes

The Science.

The self-raising flour contains baking powder. The baking powder is made up from two chemicals: a carbonate, and an acid. When you add water the carbonate and acid will react together to give carbon dioxide gas. It is this gas that makes the cake rise and be fluffy in texture.

The bicarbonate of soda needs an acid to react with it to make carbon dioxide bubbles which will help your cake rise. This recipe does not contain anything that is acid so it didn't give off any gas to make the cake rise.

There are no chemicals in just plain flour to make a gas to make your cakes rise.

 

Bicarbonates Magical Concoction

The Science

Vinegar is a diluted acid solution.  When mixing the correct proportions, it reacts chemically with bicarbonate of soda to make carbon dioxide gas foam which bubbles up. It is brown due to the colour of the vinegar.

 

Fairy Pixem

The science

Sugar crystals are formed as a result of a supersaturated solution. A saturated solution contains more sugar than could be dissolved in water under normal conditions. You make the saturated solution by heating the solution so more sugar will dissolve. When the solution cools down the extra sugar can't dissolve any more so it appears as a crystal solid. If you give the sugar molecules something to cling to (in this case the skewer), they form into crystals faster and bigger.

 

The Booming can experiment

The Science

When the drink can is plunged into cold water, the steam inside cools and condenses quickly, leaving a vacuum with no air particles in most of the can.

Air pressure is caused by air molecules bumping into things.

The outside air pressure is much bigger than the inside air pressure. (There are no particles in the vacuum inside the can to cause air pressure). The air pressure on the outside pushes on the side of the can and it is crushed.

 

Eruption

The Science

Blackcurrant is the best kind of squash to use, others don’t have enough anthocyanins (this is a blue, violet, or red colour found in plants, that will make our potion change colour). Check the label on the squash to make sure that ‘anthocyanins’ are an added ingredients!

The vinegar is acidic, so it changes the anthocyanin molecule making it more red.

The liquid changes to a purple colour when you add liquid soap because it is a weak alkali.

The bicarbonate of soda is also an alkali and will react with the acidic vinegar to make bubbles of carbon dioxide gas. The soap you added earlier will help the mixture to froth up even more with the bubbles and you will get lots of foam.

 

Fizzy Citrea

The Science

Baking powder and lemon juice react together because baking soda is a base and lemon juice is an acid. Baking powder contains a compound called sodium bicarbonate and lemon juice contains a chemical called citric acid. The reaction makes a gas called carbon dioxide. The bubbles attach to the tiny light pieces of glitter and carry them up to the top of the glass.

 

Levitation Potion

The Science

The reason that the different liquids don’t mix and float on top of each other is because they have different densities. The honey/syrup is the densest and stays at the bottom while the oil is the least dense therefore stays at the top. The cork floats on all of them while the Lego brick sinks through the oil but it floats on the water.

Density represents the amount of stuff in a certain volume of liquid.

N.B The density does not change if you have more of the same liquid so it is not quite the same as something being heavy or light.

 

Glowing White Mud

The Science

There is a chemical in the tonic water called quinine which fluoresces in UV light. Add the cornflour so the quinine has something to stick to and fluoresce more.

 

Luna's Catastrophe

The Science

The science behind it is that when the fizzy tablet dissolves the water it creates bubbles of carbon dioxide. Oil is less dense than water so it floats on top. The water and oil do not mix. The bubbles of carbon dioxide in the water rise to the top of the flask. When the bubbles reach the top they burst. The water is more dense than the oil so it falls back down again.

 

Coruscent Serpentis Multos Bituminis

The Science

The PVA glue is a chemical that contains lots of little molecules joined in long chains. The borate in the contact lens solution acts as a crosslink to join the long chains of glue like a ladder. The more links that there are between the long glue molecules, the less flexible the slime. If you don't have enough crosslinks joining the long glue molecules it is too liquid. The crosslinks holding the chains of glue together are flexible and allow you to stretch the slime.

Rainbow Portal

The Science

The water dissolves the colours on the sweets, which then colour the water. This colour spreads out or diffuses in the water. Eventually it will all mix together as it just keeps spreading out.

 

Piperis Herba Fullonum

The Science

Pepper is hydrophobic which means doesn't dissolve or mix into water. Since water molecules are strongly attracted to each other, or have a high surface tension (think of surface tension as a skin on top of the water), it keeps the pepper afloat. Adding soap breaks down the surface tension and as the water molecules spread out away from the soap, they move the pepper with them.

 

Nubes Utrem

The Science

Invisible water molecules are always present in the air that surrounds us. That is what we call water vapour. Twisting the plastic bottle compresses the air molecules inside. When we release the cap, we are permitting the air molecules to move apart. When the air expands the temperature lowers. As the air cools, the molecules start moving together. This  allows small water drops to form. Just like the clouds in the sky. Except water vapour in the sky finds pollution and other particles to stick on as well!

 

Gumminous Grow

The Science

The gummy bears are made of sugar. Water moves from a dilute solution with no sugar in to a very concentrated sugar solution with lots of sugar in a process called osmosis. The water enters the sugary gummy bears and so they swell.

 

De Aeris Potionem

The Science

Baking powder and lemon juice react together because baking soda is a base and lemon juice is an acid. Baking powder contains a compound called sodium bicarbonate and lemon juice contains a chemical called citric acid. The reaction makes a gas called carbon dioxide which fills the balloons. Carbon dioxide is more dense than air which means it sinks in the air. This is why the balloon falls to the floor.

 

Winter Wonder Potion

The Science

This experiment works because each liquid has a different density meaning they don’t mix together, for example, the soap is the most dense and so for the same volume, it is the heaviest and sinks to the bottom. The water is less dense that the soap but more dense than the oil so floats in the middle. In this experiment it is coloured in green. The oil has the lowest density and so it is the lightest liquid for the same volume and floats at the top. The oil also does not mix with the water.

Density represents the amount of stuff in a certain volume of liquid.

N.B The density does not change if you have more of the same liquid so it is not quite the same as something being heavy or light.

 

Quidditch

The Science

The ball will fly up with the air from the hairdryer until it reaches a point of balance, this is where the force of gravity (which is pushing the ball down) is equal to the force of the air (which is pushing the ball up).

The ball stays in the column of air coming from the hairdryer because of air pressure. The air coming from the hair dryer is moving faster than the air around it, this means that it also has a lower air pressure than the air around it.  The ball is kept in the column of lower air pressure because of the higher-pressure air surrounding it.

 

Magic fairy bath bombs

The Science

When the bath bomb is put in the water, the citric acid and the bicarbonate of soda dissolve and react together to make carbon dioxide gas which makes it fizz. The other ingredients are just to make it look, feel or smell nice.

 

Piscantor Glacies

The Science

Pure water freezes at 0° C. When you add salt to water, it lowers the water’s freezing temperature-it has to get colder than 0° C to freeze.

How much colder depends on how much salt is mixed in with the water. The salt you sprinkle on the ice cube lowers its freezing temperature and, since the ice cube can’t get any colder than it already is, it starts to melt. A little pool of water forms on top of the ice cube and the string sinks into it. As the ice cube melts, it dilutes the salt/water mixture in the little pool; the freezing point starts to go back up again. The ice refreezes, trapping the string. As soon as the ice cube hardens, you can raise it by lifting the string. All this happens very quickly, of course.

 

Eritque arcus in hydria

The Science

Adding more sugar makes the density of the water increase. Each layer is a different density so the heavier layers containing lots of sugar will sit at the bottom. All the layers which have different amounts of sugar and therefore different densities will sit on top of each other. Eventually, after a few days the colour will spread or diffuse into each layer.

Density represents the amount of stuff in a certain volume of liquid.

N.B The density does not change if you have more of the same liquid so it is not quite the same as something being heavy or light.

 

Bouncy Egg

The Science

Between the vinegar and eggshell, a chemical reaction occurs. The acid in the vinegar reacts with the calcium carbonate in the egg shell. This reaction breaks down the eggshell. The reaction also makes carbon dioxide and if you look at the egg carefully you will see bubbles on the egg shell as it is reacting with the vinegar. The membrane underneath does not react, and it will be left once all the egg shell has gone, making the egg bouncy. It is very delicate and will break if you prod it too much.

 

Dodge the Giant

The Science

The force acting on every object all of the time is gravity. A force called gravity pulls things towards the centre of the Earth. If you fall at an angle, such as sliding down a slide, then you will move more slowly as there is less force on you pulling you straight down.

 

Ova Pendebat Salis

The Science

Adding salt to the water increases the density and make it heavier for the same volume. The egg is less dense or lighter than the salty water so it will float. The ordinary water is more dense or heavier than the egg so the egg will not float.

Density represents the amount of stuff in a certain volume of liquid.

N.B The density does not change if you have more of the same liquid so it is not quite the same as something being heavy or light.

 

Ex Hydria Procellas

The Science

This experiment represents the water in clouds (the water being the water + food coloring, and the clouds being the shaving cream). The clouds, foam, can hold a certain amount of water before the water drops get too heavy and have to be released. At the start when you add the water + food coloring it stays in the foam but after you’ve added more and more and it gets too heavy, it starts to release into the water beneath. This is like precipitation or rain, hail, sleet or snow (depending on the temperature of the air).

 

The night of the burning jungle

The Science

The flame needs oxygen to burn. When you put the glass on top the flame soon uses up the oxygen inside the jar and goes out. If you are quick enough the wick will still have an glowing ember on it and it will be hot enough to relight the wax vapour in the air when you lift the glass and add oxygen back.

 

Instant Ice

The Science

When you put the purified water in the freezer it will get a lot cooler than the temperature at which normal water freezes at (zero degrees C). This is because to make ice you need something for the water to crystallise onto. If the water is pure then it has nothing in it to do this. When you pour this super-cold water onto a piece of ice, it provides the water with something to crystallise onto, causing it to freeze instantly.

 

Eritque arcus in speculo

The Science

By putting in a different number of skittles in each cup, you are making different concentrations of sugar solutions. The purple liquid will be the most dense and the same amount of liquid will be heavier than the red liquid which does not have as much sugar in. The colour also dissolves in the water so the coloured layers will sit on top of each other in the order of the rainbow because of the number of skittles you put into each one.

 

Anapneo

The Science

Your taste buds are linked to your smell. It is the signal from the smell molecule attaching in the nose that tells the brain what the substance is. Without this you cannot tell what taste something is. When you release your fingers your smell comes back and so does your taste.

 

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